What Makes a Good Development Plan?

Screen Shot 2016-01-25 at 8.45.13 AMLast month, Laurel McCombs shared the importance of having a written development plan.  New studies suggest that having a development plan vs. not having a development plan can be the difference between success and failure.  So what makes a good development plan?

  1.   Know Your Goal – We’ve all heard the the maxim “if you don’t know where you are going, any road will take you there.”  This cliche remains critically true.  The first step in creating a development plan is knowing what you are trying to achieve.  For most of us this boils down to knowing our monetary goal for the time period in question.  But it might include other goals such as creating a major gift program, piloting a monthly giving program, increasing the average gift size by 10%, etc.  Once you know your goals, you can work backwards to determine what is required to achieve them.
  2. Have Measurable Goals, Objectives and Benchmarks – This is critical.  Without this, a plan isn’t a plan, it is merely a statement of intent.  Metrics and benchmarks let you know if you are on the path to achieving your goals and give you advance notice to adjust your strategies if you are not.  Better yet, having measurable objectives, goals and benchmarks force you to actually have strategies.  Without empirical data there is no way to know if your plan is a success.
  3. Have Action Steps for Achieving Your Goals – Another critical piece that turns what might otherwise be a statement of intent or a vision statement into an actual plan is to have clear steps outlined with clear deadlines and clearly delineated responsibility for achieving the goals.  In other words:  who, what and when?  Breaking down the plan into smaller steps with deadlines ensures that your plan will be implemented on a timeline that makes success possible.
  4. Have a Budget – It’s important to think about what you’ll need to effectively implement your plan and what it will cost as part of the creation of your plan.  Almost all serious change requires some expenditure of resources.  Understanding your costs up front will ensure that your plan has all the resources it needs to be successful.

There are many other elements that go into successful planning but these are the basics.  Overall, it’s important to be specific.  Avoid statements like “We will create a culture of philanthropy” without tying it to specific actions.  How will you achieve this culture?  Does it it involve training?  Will you implement a staff giving program?  Who will lead it?  How will you know if you’ve achieved your goal?  Why are you creating a culture of philanthropy in the first place?  The more specific you can be with metrics, timeframes, responsibility and cost the better off you will be.

To learn about planning in more detail sign up for our January 28th webinar: “Creating and Implementing an Effective Development Plan”.  The Osborne Group is also available to help you create your development plan.

Non-Profit Social Enterprise: What You Need to Know

Today we have a guest post from Laurel Rogal of Klamp & Associates, a law firm dedicated to representing charitable organizations.  She walks us through some of the do’s and don’ts of non-profit social enterprise.

Nonprofits are increasingly seeking alternatives to their traditional dependence on donations and grants. While such contributions are often essential sources of revenue, exclusive reliance on them may make organizations susceptible to unpredictable economic fluctuations.

Revenue-generating activities are an effective way to diversify and sustain income for charitable programs. For example, a homeless shelter may earn revenue by selling products made by its residents. An art museum may rent its building for private events such as weddings. A humanitarian organization may license its logo to a national retailer in exchange for a portion of sale proceeds.

If not done carefully, however, revenue-generating activities can have adverse tax consequences. First, the IRS may impose an “unrelated business income tax” (UBIT) on otherwise exempt organizations that regularly conduct a trade or business that is not substantially related to their charitable mission. Second, and more seriously, nonprofits that engage in a substantial amount of “commercial” activity can lose their tax-exempt status. This is because the IRS takes the binary view that activities are either charitable or commercial and considers commercial activity incompatible with 501(c)(3) status. While the IRS has broad discretion to determine which category an activity falls into, it often emphasizes (1) whether it competes with for-profit businesses and (2) whether it is priced at or above cost.

Nonprofits have three options to generate earned income without jeopardizing their exemption:

  • First, nonprofits can conduct revenue-generating activities that are charitable rather than commercial in nature. This means conducting the activity in a manner distinct from for-profit businesses. For example, a microfinance activity may be considered charitable rather than commercial if it takes more risk, offers more generous terms, and/or provides more support to borrowers than commercial lenders. Likewise, a publishing activity may be considered educational rather than commercial if the charity avoids paying royalties, sells the publication through its website rather than sales agents and paid distributors, and/or subsidizes the publication with donations.
  • Second, nonprofits can earn revenue that will generally be treated as an exception to the commerciality rules, such as (1) sponsorship income and (2) passive income. Sponsorship income is paid by businesses in exchange for acknowledgment as the charity’s official sponsor. Passive income includes rents, royalties, interest, and other income that accrues without ongoing activity by the charity. Please note that if either of these undertakings becomes vastly excessive in relation to the nonprofit’s actual charitable activities, the nonprofit may face IRS scrutiny and/or penalties.
  • Third, nonprofits can engage in revenue-generating activities that are an insubstantial portion of the organizations’ overall operations. The IRS has considerable discretion to determine whether an activity is substantial, since this term is not defined. In some cases, an activity that amounts to 10% of the charity’s revenue may be considered substantial. Please note that, unlike the previous two options, income from an insubstantial activity may be subject to UBIT.

Nonprofits should consider these tax issues when designing and implementing revenue-generating activities. Careful planning can protect the nonprofit while increasing its capacity to serve the public good.

Connecting with Donors Starts with Connecting with Employees

connectionsConnecting with donors on a personal level builds lasting and productive relationships. In much the same way, connecting with employees results in higher staff productivity and retention.

We want our donors and volunteers to feel valued and appreciated.  Joe Connelly of WSJ said, “Retention is the new acquisition and customer service is the new marketing.” Retention of talent is as important as retention of donors.

Attrition hits the bottom line hard.

But how can we hold onto donors by providing thoughtful retention strategies and outstanding customer service if we first don’t “wow” our staffs?

We can’t expect staff or volunteers to deliver what they have not personally experienced.

Thank you is fundamental.  Genuine, prompt, and specific.  “Thank you for staying late Friday.  I know you had plans with your family.  I appreciate your sacrifice.”

Reporting on impact is critical. “I wanted to circle back.  The project you helped us with three months ago, when you stayed late and pitched in has had an enormous impact on our work.  You made a difference.  Thank you again.”  Personal, timely, authentic and concrete.

Survey your team

How valued and appreciated do they feel?  Do the same with your volunteers and board members.  To what degree do they believe their work is making a difference?

Inspiration is also an important component of donor work.  We are seeking inspired, joyful and generous investments of time, talent, expertise, connections and treasure.  Inspiration is equally important internally. If you are interested in surveying your team, asking the right questions that will uncover valuable data and truths, contact us at mail@theosbornegroup.com

Having a Sense of Purpose Motivates

Employees report that having a sense of purpose is the top motivator for work satisfaction according to author and leader Aaron Hurst.

“Researchers have found that the best ways to ensure that employees feel a sense of purpose boils down to three simple things: They need to have opportunities to grow; to build relationships with employees and others involved in the work; and to create something greater than themselves.”

Too often, we don’t start by inspiring our teams before we ask them to inspire potential donors.  CEOs need a big inspiring vision of the future.  Not an internal vision – “We will be the organization of choice in our market, grow our endowment to x and increase our client base by y.” We are talking about a meaningful, outward vision that will result in fixing a societal ill or creating a major societal shift.  Big ideas bring about big gifts.  They also garner internal dedication.  Connect every staff and volunteer task no matter how mundane to the mission, vision and work. Share the vision at every opportunity.

Make sure that every employee and every board member on an annual basis has a hands-on experience with the people, animals, planet you serve.  For some this is easy and others a challenge especially if your work is primarily overseas.  But hard doesn’t equate to impossible.  Be creative.  Remember, connecting with donors and employees is key to outstanding results.

Meaningful and productive engagement is critical for donors.

Research reports that when engaged, annual fund and major gift donors give 24% to 38% more.  Engagement also works for staff and board members.  Ask for advice and ideas.  Share decision-making through appropriate delegation and empowerment.

Are your staff and board meetings show and tell or are folks engaged in meaningful discussions that matter?  Are you listening?  Seeking and providing feedback?

Connecting with donors starts with connecting with staff and board members.  The payoff will be huge.

by Karen Osborne

It’s Not Too Late to End the Year Strong

It’s not too late to end the year strong with an increased surge in philanthropic investments. Kevin Daum, author of “Roar! Get Heard in the Sales and Marketing Jungle,” recommends tips that translate nicely for fundraisers.

“Go Lean and Mean,” is his first recommendation. Focus on the top three goals you can actually achieve in the next month. Frontline fundraiser might consider (1) Closing the gifts of loyal friends, especially those donors from whom you are seeking an upgrade. Call, pop by, email or write a personal note and then follow-up. Start at the top in terms of giving capacity and requested amount. Make it as personal as you are able. Quality matters with these top potential donors. (2) Maybe the next tier down and (3) everyone else who hasn’t been asked receiving a warm invitation to make a difference now!

For non-frontline fundraisers, Daum’s advice still works. “With only a little time left, every minute is valuable, so don’t waste them. Decide on two or three major goals that are important and achievable. Stretching is fine, but make sure the motivation is strong. The rest can be eliminated or go on the schedule for 2014. Then you’ll be mentally free and ready to focus hard and attack these important few goals.”

“Take Stock,” is his second recommendation. I don’t think that works well for December in the fundraising world no matter your position on the team. For example, donor relations professionals are buys getting thank you notes, holiday cards, and impact reports out the door, helping donors feel great about their investments and thinking about making another. Researchers are polishing lists and briefs for fundraisers trying to close, close, close. January, however, is the perfect month for taking stock and adjusting your plan for the remainder of your fiscal year if not on a calendar year or making a new plan for 2014.

“Much of what you anticipated would happen this year probably turned out to be different than you originally thought. Don’t try and execute an aggressive approach based upon information and expectations that are months old. Take a day or two to disconnect from the day-to-day craziness to assess, think and plan the coming months. You might consider a consultant to help you find your weaknesses.” The Osborne Group offers many diagnostic tools and services to help you maximize strategically taking stock.

His next recommendation is also excellent for January. “Add Structure,” – a path to success. You need a plan with clear metrics and accountability. Use January to assess what worked, what didn’t, why, and what shall we do differently going forward.

“Make a Deal,” number four suggestion and I like it a lot. What motives you to excel, to pick up the phone, to get out the door, to exceed your own and your supervisor’s expectations, to make your donors say, “Wow?” Identify that motivator, promise to reward your excellent behavior, and then go do amazing work these last few weeks always keeping in mind it is not too late to end the year strong!

His last recommendation is essential. “Enlist Partners.” We know that volunteers can and should be force multipliers. Here’s a quick piece that may inspire your volunteers this holiday season.  Enrolling and engaging your best volunteers to help you with both stewardship (calling, visiting to thank, share impact, and wish the best for the New Year) and to ask and close (Please join me) is a winning formula.

As you focus on what to do during these last few weeks, keep in mind the good advice of Jess Lee, “Keep things as simple as possible, edit out the extraneous, and focus on polishing the details.”

The Power of Saying “No”

no-2People underestimate the power of saying “no”.  Saying no sounds scary, especially when you are turning down a request from your boss, a volunteer, or a donor. But here’s the thing: we say no all the time by our actions. We work as hard as we can for as long as we can and then stop when we must. Incomplete to-do items roll off our desk and crash to the floor. By saying no, we are strategically choosing what falls. We’re making an informed decision that we can justify.

When a request lands on your desk, don’t commit right away, advises the Harvard Business Review. Acknowledge the request. Ask clarifying questions. Seek time to give the problem some thought. Where does this fit within your priorities? How much time would it take to do it? How might your office (not you necessarily) accomplish this task? Then respond to the requestor with your solution.

Another strategy I like is “Yes, No, Yes.” “Yes, that sounds like an important (interesting) idea (project) (event). Unfortunately, I am unable to take it on at this time. But, yes, I will give this some thought and get back to you.”
Greg McKeown, Author of “Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less,” recommends three steps.

Step 1: Affirm the relationship. e.g., “It really is good to hear from you.”

Step 2: Thank the person sincerely for the opportunity. e.g., “Thank you ever so much for thinking of me! It sounds like such a brilliant project. I am complimented that you thought of me.”

Step 3: Decline firmly and politely. e.g., “For several reasons I need to pass on this at the moment.”

As leader/managers, we also have to empower our team members and give them the power of saying “No.” Katie Beauchamp, co-founder of Birchbox says, “The most important thing I can do is show I really understand the priorities of the business and help people not do things.

By saying no to some things, you create the space and the energy to say yes to other tasks. “You have to decide what your highest priorities are and have the courage to say—pleasantly, smilingly, non-apologetically—no to other things,” said the late Stephen Covey, author of The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. “And the way to do that is to have a bigger yes burning inside.”

Leadership Design

Often, people think leadership equals charisma… great public speaking… being out front… just as we think sales is about speaking and making a great case. But you and I know leadership and sales are about having the right strategic conversations, asking the right questions, “listening to understand, rather than to respond” as the late, great Peter Drucker said. Leaders set clear expectations, model the behavior they seek and measure results, impact and the value of the work.  Leadership design means being an intentional leader/manager. Understanding your strengths, weaknesses and blind spots – those things that tend to trip you up repeatedly. You have to know what type of leader you want to be, design it, work toward it and measure the results.

Only you can know what type of leader your organization needs and you want to become. But here are some things to think about as you design your leadership future.

Your attitude sets the tone.  Early in my management career, I learned a powerful lesson. After a very tough day in the office, I packed up my things and dragged myself to the parking lot. Head down, shoulders rounded, I felt and looked beaten down.  To my right, I heard the click of boots on the pavement. “Karen Osborne,” said a strong female voice, “If that’s how you feel, then there is no hope for the rest of us.”

confidence-words

“T” kept right on walking, but her message hit home. No matter how bad things got, I never left my office again without my shoulders back, my head high and smile on my face. Leadership guru Doug Dickerson agrees. Our attitude affects everyone around us. If we are positive, can-do, empathetic, ethical and humble, if we focus on the right things, so will they.

Own and learn from your errors.  My Dad used to say, “I’ve never been wrong. Oh yeah, except for that one time, but then it turned out that was right.” Hmmm. Not the right message. You need your team to try new things and know you have the team’s back. We all have to learn from our errors. “Fail forward,” as David Bornstein calls the learning that comes from less-than-stellar experiences. Learn from the things that work as well.

To achieve fresh approaches and encourage learning something new every day, it starts with you. Ask yourself, “What did I learn from this mistake?” Share the mistake and the lessons with the team. “Here’s what I tried. Here’s what worked and here’s what didn’t.” “This is what I plan to do differently going forward.” If you can be vulnerable, so can they. And be sure to ask what Terry Jones, author of On Innovation calls the “quiet question” of your team members: “What did you learn?”  (Laura and Neesha recorded a podcast on this very topic:  Brilliant Failure.  Give it a listen.)

Ask questions and listen.  If fact, asking strategic questions, listening carefully, and unpacking meaning with follow-up questions is such a powerful skill, it drives success. Getting good at having strategic conversations should be part of your leadership design. If you’d like a list of strategic management questions to help you lead by design, click here.

Measure results.  Ever leadership design needs a set of clear objectives and the right metrics. Consider sending out an anonymous survey to test your leadership skills. Fill out our questionnaire, “Management & Leadership IQ” to see how you do. If you are going to create leadership by design, you have to start and end with the right information and the right data.

Real and Lasting Good: A Culture of Philanthropy in Sustainability Planning

The numbers are in.

I know that you know:  Giving USA data was released this week. Researchers predict it will take at least five more years to raise as much as before the recession. When we look at imagesgiving over time, we see that bad economies can wreak havoc on our not-for-profits. Some die. Some cut services. Slashed government support doesn’t return at the same levels. How should NGOs protect themselves from the vagaries of the economy? How can YOU do better than the numbers predict over the coming six years?

Create a culture of philanthropy at your organization.

This isn’t pie in the sky stuff. It is powerful, successful, and sustainable.

First, let’s define our terms: a culture of philanthropy exists when everyone — your staff, your board, mission staff members like physicians, program leaders, faculty members, the CEO and other members of the c-suite – understands, believes in, embraces and acts on his or her roles and responsibilities in philanthropy in an investor-focused and co-ownership manner.

It starts at the top. Your CEO must be the first to get it. Philanthropy is a crucial component of the organization’s resource engine and therefore is everyone’s responsibility. Believe it. Embrace it. Act on it.

Co-ownership is the key. According to Cowan Global Consulting describes five levels of working partnerships starting at co-existing and moving past collaboration to the point five-degress-of-partnership-workingwhere everyone has stake, a share. Working with the fundraising team is an embraced responsibility, not a favor or something ones does when there is time.

That requires the CEO modeling the desired behaviors, celebrating successes, defining metrics, holding folks accountable and stewarding and rewarding outcomes.  Give yourself three years to achieve a true culture: 100% inspired, joyful, and generous giving from all staff, volunteers and board members;  everyone actively helping identify, engage, and steward donors and potential donors; everyone able to participate with adequate skills and understanding. Along the way, however, you will reap many benefits, starting in year one.

Here are seven steps to help you achieve a culture of philanthropy!

  1. Begin with a clear, compelling, aspirational and urgent organizational vision undergirded by shared, stated values. The mission and vision are the reasons the organization desires a culture of philanthropy. A driving institutional vision provides the urgency for change.
  2. Change requires a vision as well. Imagining the organization once it achieves the culture of philanthropy paints a picture all constituencies can embrace. What will everyone do differently with what results? Change is personal. The change vision must speak to what’s in it for the individuals who need to change. Get the word out. Spread the vision often and throughout the institution.
  3. Start with champions and modeling behavior. John Kotter, leadership guru, calls these champions a “guiding coalition.” Who are those influential people who already understand, embrace, believe in, and act on his or her roles in philanthropy and stewardship? We need them to help bring along the others. According to change expert, Jeanie Daniel Duck, “People believe because they actually see the new behavior at work and working.”
  4. Wow your team.  It is hard to make others feel great about giving and participating in philanthropy, if the proposed change agent feels beleaguered or under-appreciated. We must invest in our people first. Demonstrate great customer service internally if we want our staffs to provide it to others. Solicit your board, volunteers, and staff members in personal and inspirational ways. Provide them with impact reports, data, stories, and visuals. How can they help you achieve this with others, if they’ve not experienced it?
  5. Develop a plan. A vision without a plan is just a pipe dream. Assess your current strengths and weaknesses. Develop concrete, measurable goals for achieving a culture of philanthropy and stewardship. For example, if none of the senior administrators give, a goal might be 100% generous giving by a specific date. Strategies and tactics follow. Make sure the strategies include removing obstacles, changing systems, or structures that undermine achieving the desired culture.
  6. Institutionalize the new changes. Kotter stresses this. Document the new policies and procedures. Put philanthropy and stewardship on the institutional dashboard. Include it in performance measures. Make it a stated part of the values statement.
  7. Reward, steward and celebrate success.

The benefits of a culture of philanthropy are awesome: Faster recovery. Sustainability. Increased giving. Higher donor loyalty. Strong donor satisfaction. Viral marketing. Joe Connelly of the Wall Street Journal reported, “Donor retention is the new acquisition and customer service is the new marketing.” Achieve a culture of philanthropy and you’ll be on the cutting edge.

To request a copy of “The Common Thread”, from the April issue of CASE Currents magazine, where Karen speaks on this topic in greater detail, please visit our website.

Hello. Now What?: Smart Staff Orientation

You thought through the skills, experiences and competencies you need in your next hire. You wrote a great job description and crafted probing questions and scenarios that will help you identify the strongest candidate possible. Your ad is spot-on or you hired an outstanding firm to bring you the best pool of folks. Now you’ve chosen, made an offer and the your new staff person starts in 30 days.

For too many of us, that final decision marks the end of our hiring strategy. We either send the candidate to Human Resources to partake in the standard orientation or we plan a one day initiation – the office tour, donor files, and expectations. Sometimes, we sign the person up for a conference and use that as their orientation.

Then we wonder why things aren’t going as well as we hoped.  There is a better way to create a staff orientation focused on outcomes:

1. No candidate is perfect. We need to have a plan for shoring up whatever is missing. Start by making a list (or take the list you already created for the interview process) of all of the competencies, skills and experiences you sought. Indicate how many the new hire possesses, how many are there but not as strong as you’d like, and how many are missing. Try these guidelines for your staff orientation program. For example:

Slide1You hired this person for their strong competencies and needed experiences but there are gaps. Your plan must address the gaps.

2. Think about staff orientation as a year-long process. Twelve months from now, the new hire should know, have completed, and contributed what? Concretely identify these things. You might arrange them like this:

  • Knowledge about the institution or organization
  • Knowledge about the office – how you do things, how to use the system, knows their colleagues and internal customers and partners
  • Knowledge about the donor pool, met their top 50 and understands their philanthropic profile, relationship with the organization, motivations and so forth
  • Increased skills in (those things you wanted them to learn)
  • Increased experiences in (those experiences they didn’t have)
  • Plan for their work in the second year
  • Plans for their top 100 donors (or plans for building a qualified pool or some other identified need)

Some use a six-month approach.  The suggestions here from the Harvard Business Review are worth incorporating.

3. Now you can design the orientation program. You have your end-points laid out. How will you help your new hire get there? What does she need to do to ensure success? Who else needs to be involved?  We recommend thinking about orientation in stages.

Slide2

By month three, you know whether he is going to work out or not…  From this point, have a plan or revise your plan for moving forward, or decide that it is time to part ways and search for a new employee.  If you move forward, at month six:  conduct a formal check-in and make adjustments based on results.  Seek input on your management as well as delivering feedback!  Then at the year anniversary, ask for a self-evaluation and provide a written one.

To help you build a strong relationship with new employees, click here for a list of “Getting to Know Your New Hire Strategic Questions”.

The Three Most Important Board Roles

Type “board roles” into your favorite search engine and you will come up with a wealth of topics and purveyors of The Answer.  Still the question persists:  “But WHAT should my board be DOING?”  With so much information already out there, why is there such confusion, hand-wringing, frustration on the part of the staff team – executive and imagesdevelopment –  and on the part of the board about what a high-performing board should be doing to support the fund development efforts of the organization or institution?  I don’t want to devolve into a marketing pitch here, but we strive to deliver practical solutions here – and I think the problem with many of these resources is that they are not answering the practical question being asked… and maybe we’re not always clear on what we’re asking about board roles.

Here is what the answer is NOT:  the answer is not about whether you have a “hands on” or “rubber stamp” board, whether this board is a working board or a governing board.  In reality, all boards should be hands-on sometimes – and occasionally rubber-stamp a wise strategy.  Governing is hard work so I have never understood that distinction.  The answer doesn’t come from a pretty flow chart (…and anyone who knows me knows that I love a good flow chart – though a less popular approach when making a point with my spouse.  Different post.  Different day.)

The answer is found in discerning what we’re really asking about:  are you looking to understand and agree on the board’s fund development roles or their fund development jobs

Fund Development jobs are relatively simple – and we should keep them that way.  This is not to say they don’t need support and training, but there are just five JOBS we need board members to fulfill, each in different measure, and according to their skills and abilities:

Slide1When board members support the fund development program by doing those five jobs, we’re in good shape.  No matter what size your staff is now, you’ve got “force multiplication” and the potential for peer-to-peer outreach, even if most of the solicitation is done (or supported) by staff members.  It takes training to make sure board members have the skills and abilities to those jobs well.  (Go here for an easy-to-adapt tool on engaging your board in stewardship.  And go here for a past webinar on engaging your board in fund development.)

It is true that you can focus on those jobs and still not get anywhere in your fund development program…  It causes the plaintive cry where I started this post.  In my experience, that cri de coeur often comes from the fact that board members didn’t first embrace the ROLES that enable the jobs to get done well.

We need to allocate the right people to the right specific jobs once we have them.  First we must recruit for these roles, and not be shy about stating explicitly what role every board member must play in fund development.  Lucky for us, there are only three really important roles for you to share with your board:

1)   Give generously and be willing to talk passionately and convincingly about why you invest.  To be a good “fund developer” and carry out those five jobs, every board member must identify with those they are reaching out to, know what a good donor looks like, be proud and vocal about their support of this organization.

2)   Assess the risk of your fundraising approach, creating balance and mitigating risk.  Every board member – whether you are trained in fund development or not – should be able to recognize that holding ONE fundraising event on which all or a significant percentage of the year’s revenue rides is RISKY.  That’s really, really risky.  So, do not do it.   Same goes for relying on one donor, or one source of giving.  Something happens to one donor or one sector and…. pppphhhft.  Equally, every board member should be able to recognize that doing 17 events or campaigns is probably not a good use of resources and splits attention in too many directions.  And, with a little education, most board members can embrace the wisdom of focusing on building a robust pool of leadership donors who provide significant investment each year.

3)  Be available, demand that your availability is used well.  Agreeing to take on those five roles – or some of those five roles – but then neeeeeeever quite getting around to doing what you are asked shirks this role. Promise what you will deliver.  Then, you can and should demand (Staff: talking to you now…) that your time be used well, on the right jobs with the right donors and that everyone measures the effectiveness of what they’re doing, not to punish anyone, but to see what works best and do more of that.

What should a high-performing board being doing?  Embracing three roles that lead the way to five effective jobs.  Practical?  I think so.